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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

JAMES A. SMITH, OF NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT. BOX AND AXLE FOR 
CARRIAGES.

Specification of Letters Patent No. 651, dated March 23, 1838.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, James A. Smith, � and State of Connecticut, 
have invented a new and useful Improvement in Boxes and Axles for 
Carriage-Wheels, the object of which is to lessen friction and to 
prevent oil from escaping. This I effect by making a friction 
washer and thereby an oil preserver constituent part of the box 
on the outward instead of the common friction washer and use my 
improvement, I � describe its construction and opera� axles is 
made by casting or otherwise in the usual manner of �. pipe boxes 
but with a bore of uniform diameter from end to end, excepting a 
lip or shoulder, which I call a friction washer is formed on the 
inside of the outer end. This lip or shoulder in boxes for iron 
axles of a medium size or one and a half genes in diameter, 
should be about 4 of an inch thick and deep leaving a hole for 
the end of the axle about � of an inch in diameter of the iron 
axle is also of uniform size, and made to fit, and play easily in 
the bore of the box, with a shoulder to fit the shoulder of the 
friction washer within the box, the end projecting beyond the box 
� armed with a screw thread in � to receive a corresponding nut 
washer. The box for axles of wood is made with a tapering bore 
corresponding with the , � of the intended axle, and is armed at 
this outer end with a friction washer, or shoulder as above 
described.

The arm of the wood axle is made to fit the bore of the box and 
is armed on the top and bottom with a chain or strap of iron 
embedded and made fast, terminating at the outward end of the arm 
with an iron ring or shoulder, to fit the shoulder on the box on 
a spindle projecting beyond the box to be fed between the sand 
box and the rear band of the hub. Oil tubes may be dispensed 
with, but if desired, the mode of insertion herein specified is a 
great improvement on all the modes now used. 

For further illustration I refer to the accompanying drawings as 
part of my specification.

Figure 1, represents an arm of an iron axle, A the shank fitting 
the box, B, its shoulder to rest against the shoulder of the 
friction washer in the box, C, its projection beyond the box to 
receive the nut washer. Fig. 2, the pipe box for an iron axle, 
the ore designated by dotted lines, A, friction washer or inner 
lip a constituent part of the box, B sand box in common use, C 
oil tube with stop screws. Fig. 3, nut washer. Fig. 4, A, A, the 
iron strap embedded and secured on axles of wood, terminating  in 
the iron shoulder B, on the projecting spindle C, for the nut P. 
Fig. 5, the box for axles of wood, the bore designated by dotted 
lines, A friction washer with spindle projecting, B sand box, C 
oil tube.

The consequence and advantages of this improvement are, that all 
friction is removed from the usual friction washers on the inner 
shoulder of the axle (which by setting the axle, usually becomes 
not parallel with the opposing face of the box) and is 
transferred to the friction washer in the box, which controls the 
surge of the carriage both ways and always presents equal and 
parallel faces for the friction occasioned by it, and at the 
place where the oil is necessarily retained by the form of the 
box and the set of the axle, and this retention of oil may be 
increased by suitable packing with leather on the outer shoulder 
of the axle.

What I claim as my invention and improvement�

The friction washer within and making a constituent part of the 
box and the corresponding shoulder on the axle, as both are above 
specified and described, and therefore I solicit Letters Patent.

New Haven, Novr. 16th 1837.

JAMES A. SMITH.

Witnesses: Simeon Baldwin, Silas Mix.